A number of terms are used throughout the project and these are further defined below.
Non living environmental variables, such as salinity, temperature or sediment grain size.
Arctic Seas Biodiversity. Research program on biodiversity issues initiated by Eni Norge in 2007.
The coastal and off shore waters of Troms and Finmark Counties, Northern Norway, within which ASBD fieldwork has been carried out and to which recommendations are valid.
Biodiversity Action Plan, at set of actions enforced to mitigate any effects of an activity on biodiversity
A straight line drawn between the outermost coastal islands, capes and skerries, defining the inner Norwegian Waters, and providing base for the 12 n. miles territorial waters. The fjords, including large fjords such as Vestfjorden, Sognefjorden or Porsanger are located within the Baseline, and are defined as inner Norwegian Waters.
An investigation carried out to provide basis for future monitoring
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
As biological diversity
Biological diversity: the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. (Convention on Biological Diversity) Sub-definitions according to MarBEF (www.marbef.org)
Biological Oxygen Demand, the amount of oxygen required for biological degradation of an organic compound (usually specified as BOD5 or BOD7, specifying 5 or 7 days incubation at a specific temperature).
Blow out Preventer. Safety valve normally placed at the seabed to prevent discharges from a well.
Area beyond the continental shelf margin. Comment: In practice we refer to deep-sea as depths below 750 m, as defined by the Norwegian Deep-Sea working group. At these depths, methods for carrying out sea-floor surveys differ somewhat from those prescribed by standard off-shore guidelines. See also ISO 16665 for implications for benthic sampling.
The Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management. DN is a directorate under the ministry of the Environment, being responsible for managing of biological diversity.
Dynamic positioning. Enables a ship to be kept at an exact position using thrusters and engines (opposed to an anchored ship).
Exploration and Production (of oil and gas)
The EEA (European Economic Area). This agreement of 1994 is the major co-operation agreement between EU and the former EFTA countries, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.
Environmental Risk Assessment. A method to calculate and present a theoretical risk that a planned operation will impose to sensitive environmental resources.
Floating Production Storage and Offloading. An offshore installation producing the well stream form an oilfield, and storing oil for regular offloading to tankers.
Gravity Based Structure. Petroleum installation standing at the seabed.
Hydrogen Sulphide, smelly nerve toxin produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic material.
The global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues. http://www.ipieca.org/
Norwegian State financed program initiated to obtain better knowledge of seabed topography, biodiversity and bottom relief in the Lofoten – Barents Sea area. The program is implemented by Norwegian Geological Survey (NGU), Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and the State Mapping Authority.
Norwegian Ministry of the Environment
Miljørettet Risikoanalyse, a method widely applied in ERA on the Norwegian offshore Monitoring The recurrent collection of data on particular ecosystem components with the presumption of taking mitigating measures in case threshold values are exceeded
Marine Strategy Framework Directive is an EU directive requiring Member States (MSs) and in Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland through the EEA agreement, to prepare national strategies to manage their seas to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) by 2020.
Marine Mammals Observer. A person onboard a seismic vessel responsible for looking out for marine mammals in the operations area
The North Atlantic Oscillation is the difference between air pressure over the sea outside Spain and the air pressure over the waters off Iceland. The index indicates the weather conditions in Scandinavia; negative NAO indicate cold and dry weather, while positive NAO is accompanied by mild and humid weather
Norwegian Exclusive Economic Zone. A 200 nautical miles zone on the seaward side of the baseline, within which Norwegian legislation for resource exploitation is enforced.
Norwegian Ministry of Oil and Energy.
The Norwegian Oil Industry Association, a pressure group for oil companies
Predefined Areas (In Norwegian: forhåndsdefinerte områder), mature areas of the Norwegian EEZ in which production Licences can be awarded directly from the Oil And Energy Department following a less extensive licensing procedure. PDO Plan for development and operation. The operators planned development of a field. Has to be approved by the authorities.
Production Licence. Licence for exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons in a specified area on the Norwegian Offshore.
Particularly Valuable Areas (Norwegian SVO: Spesielt verdifulle områder). Marine areas which at a national and international scale are important to one or more species or stocks of species.
The ability of a species, or variety or breed of species, to respond and adapt to external environmental stresses.
A long term monitoring and mapping programme for Norwegian seabird populations started in 2005. SEAPOP is implemented by Norwegian Institute of Nature Research (NINA) in cooperation with Norwegian Polar Institute (NP) and Tromsø Museum (TMU). The program is sponsored by the Ministry of the Environment, The Ministry of Oil and Energy and OLF.
(working definition under development) The degree and extent to which an individual, community or system responds to an event or change in surroundings, and whether it readily returns to its original state or remains changed.
Collection of data on ecosystem components without any presumptions of management actions (cf. Monitoring). Sverdrup Unit for measuring the volume of water transported in a marine current. One Sverdrup is 1 million m3 water x Second-1.
Total Organic Contents, contents of Carbon chemically bound in organic material in e.g. a sediment sample.
Valued Ecosystem Component – A resource or an environmental feature of the ecosystem which, if altered from present condition, will be important for the evaluation of environmental impact and be the focus of administrative or amending measures.
The likelihood of significant change if exposed to negative external pressures